Cho, Ph. Wungsang Ryu, Korea Gas Corporation. The terminal received the first LNG cargo for its commissioning work at the end of October in The terminal added consecutively LNG storage tanks, re-gasification facilities, and an unloading berth.
Presently, 10 units of storage tanks are under operation with a total capacity of one million kiloliter. Figure 1 shows the conceptual schematic of LNG process at the Pyeongtaek terminal. During 17 years of operation of the terminal, the existing conventional designs have been improved upon enhancing the terminal reliability, achieving high controllability, and keeping a high level of safety.
These involve boil-off gas treatment, sendout pressure control, and LNG unloading. This paper also proposes a new methodology to estimate the terminal sendout availability based on unit system availability and equipment reliability obtained from the actual accumulated operation and maintenance records. The total vapor of LNG can be divided into two categories.
The BOG was originally designed to be compressed 10 barg. In addition, the low pressure LP vapor returned from an LNG cold air separation plant was also lined up to the power plant. The conversion of fuel from natural gas to bunker-C oil at the thermal power plant pressed the terminal to change its process. This caused a revision in the original operating philosophy of the terminal. Pump efficiency also contributes to the generation of BOG.
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The amount of BOG was precisely estimated using a computer system under normal and unloading conditions. The rate of evaporation of LNG from a storage tank is essentially controlled by the amount of supersaturated pressure of the stored LNG and surface area of the vapor-liquid interface.
The following Hashemi et al. Additional vapor can be generated when certain conditions arise. Two conditions often observed and considered in this estimation were. The main reason for this large fluctuation is due to LNG unloading operation. The basic principle of the re-liquefaction system is to cool, re-liquefy, and send-out the excess vapor of natural gas by mixing it with sub-cooled low pressure LNG taken from the LP LNG header line. It is, therefore, capable of absorbing a certain quantity of heat whilst remaining liquid.
In order to improve the heat and mass transfer of gas and liquid phases, the condensation takes place in a packed tower where gas and liquid enter the top of the re-condenser and flow co-currently through the bed of metal rings, where both phases come in close contact. If re-condensing heat exchanger level rises, the stepwise overfilling protection system will be initiated.Fluor has over four decades of experience in the international marine terminal industry, providing life-cycle services in all types of port, harbor and terminal projects.
Based on the challenging location and desired project performance criteria, Fluor uses a consultative approach to encompass project conceptual, feasibility and front-end engineering design FEED continuing through detailed engineering, procurement, fabrication and construction management EPFCM. This experience and diverse background enables Fluor to focus on optimizing value, including ultimate operability and reliability, during the critical conceptual planning and design activities of the facility.
Over four decades of experience in the international marine terminal industry, providing life cycle services in all types of port, harbor and terminal projects. Fluor has served the gas processing industry for over half a century, with active participation in LNG for the last 40 years.
The combination of both LNG and marine terminal capabilities, along with our project management and financing expertise, has pushed Fluor to the forefront of LNG receiving terminal design. Fluor has been involved in projects with a combined capacity of more than 60 MTPA on five continents around the globe. Fluor continues to invest substantially in new technologies to meet tomorrow's challenges. Fluor's coastal engineering group has extensive experience in coastal hydraulics, hydrology, water resources, environment and oceanography.
Our services provide comprehensive support for all phases of marine projects. Our established in-house coastal hydrodynamic modeling capability gives Fluor a competitive edge, eliminating the need for third-party consultants.
Skip to main content. Turn on more accessible mode. Turn off more accessible mode. Search Query. Marine Terminals and LNG Regasification Terminals Fluor has over four decades of experience in the international marine terminal industry, providing life-cycle services in all types of port, harbor and terminal projects.
In addition to EPFCM, Fluor's marine constructability acumen covers: Commissioning and start-up Fabrication Modular construction Operations and Maintenance Permitting Project management This experience and diverse background enables Fluor to focus on optimizing value, including ultimate operability and reliability, during the critical conceptual planning and design activities of the facility.
Coastal engineering services include: Anchorage mooring system design Calculation of wave and current force on marine structures and overtopping Design of shore protection structures Establishment of metocean design criteria including wind, wave, tide, current, tsunami, storm surge, sea level rise and ice Marine facility layout and conceptual design Navigation channel design Passing ship study Under keel clearance study.
Featured Projects. LNG Import Terminal. Contact Us.Members of the Working Group represent several countries and are acknowledged experts in their profession. The objective of this report is to provide information and recommendations on good practice. Conformity is not obligatory and engineering judgement should be used in its application, especially in special circumstances. This report should be seen as an expert guidance and state-of-the-art on this particular subject.
PIANC disclaims all responsibil- ity in case this report should be presented as an official standard. Terms of Reference List of References Ship Characteristics Conventional LNG trade consists of facilities which produce and liquefy LNG, large dedicated terminals, custom built vessels to transport LNG, and long-term customers who may regasify LNG for direct use or inject it into the gas grid. Recently, the market for LNG has shown openings for spot trading for example as a substitute for nuclear power after Fukushima in and small-scale use of LNG; either for smaller customers such as peak shaving plants or as fuel for vessels.
The potential of using LNG as an alternative fuel for ships is gaining momentum due to the recent IMO regulations especially for the designated Emission Control Areas or ECAs and as part of the debate of improving the environmental performance of shipping.
Recent analysis demonstrates that in terms of operational performance LNG can be considered a viable alternative to marine fuel and results in zero SOx emissions and significant reductions of NO x- and CO2 emissions. One of the challenges to the broad application of LNG as fuel is the required investments relating to adequate small to mid-scale infrastructure as well as the best practices and regulations to be applied to LNG bunkering.
Nonetheless, in addition to the historic trend of increasing LNG carrier vessel size, new 1, to 50, m3 LNG carrier vessels and vessels using LNG as fuel are being built and operated. LNG industry growth between and was slow and deliberate, with less than 20 new projects in a dozen countries. During this period only a few vessels per year were delivered. At the same timetom3 vessels were constructed, of which many more were ordered than of the smaller sizes.
Terminal tank storage also increased, leading the way to further increase vessel size totom3. The vessel size increase continues with them3 Qflex andm3 Qmax vessels and many LNG terminals coming on stream or being developed. The vast majority of the current fleet is overm3. Figure 1. Half a century after the onset of the LNG business, the safety record of the industry is outstanding. LNG has a reputation of being hazardous, which has resulted in a strict regime around dedicated large scale LNG terminals.
Due to the environmental drivers and small scale applications for LNG for power or fuel the number of LNG terminals, notably small to medium scale terminals, will increase significantly. Small to mid-scale operations are being developed in isolation as well as being integrated into existing terminals. This change in industry focus and these terminals being out of scope of existing LNG codes and standards necessitates the development of this design guideline for small to mid-scale LNG terminals which covers the specific marine terminal infrastructure design aspects of this new LNG market segment.The feasibility investigation of new initiatives in the LNG field helps companies with the development and implementation of successful ideas during the entire project life.
A integrated, multi-disciplinary team can support them from the very beginning of a project to its completion, covering not only the design but also permitting aspects. We have been involved in more than projects regarding LNG providing concept and feasibility studies, design, PMC and other specialist studies or consultancy services.
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Corporate info Privacy Cookies. VAT number With Liquefied Natural Gas LNG as one of the key solutions to the rapid increase in energy demand, there is a need to employ integrated planning to deal with the marine transport and terminal design issues for new LNG facilities. At present, LNG vessels range from 65, cubic metres to overcubic metres in capacity, but much larger vessels are under development. Once an LNG vessel reaches a receiving terminal, the LNG is unloaded into large tanks and stored until it is re-vaporised and piped into the natural gas distribution network.
As the capital cost of the tanks is significant, there is a need to optimise the storage capacity. Further, the marine structures at an LNG terminal may have to be designed to serve a variety of vessel sizes and configurations and the appropriate storage capacity to handle their respective cargos. Sandwell has the tools to take an integrated approach to the design of a total marine system including: The simulation of the marine transportation, the investigation of the appropriate storage capacity at the berth, simulation of vessel operations and the optimisation of the berth itself.
A key Sandwell tool for terminal development is simulation of the LNG transportation system from the loading of vessels at the source, through the ocean transit conditions, to the receiving terminal and its storage system.
Simulation can clearly identify cycle time variation throughout the year for each step of the LNG logistics chain and be used to optimise vessel characteristics, terminal operations, and storage requirements. Accommodating the entire fleet of LNG vessels is desirable from a flexibility point of view; however, due to widely varying characteristics of individual vessels, this approach presents a major challenge to the terminal designer.
Simulation modeling can greatly reduce the number and type of variables that need to be considered for a proposed LNG operation and the subsequent detailed design of its marine terminal. It is the starting point for many of the projects Sandwell is asked to evaluate.
Initial planning and site selection of a LNG marine terminal is very often governed by factors not related to terminal operations per se; e. Thus, in most cases, the terminal planning exercise is carried out within a confined predetermined area that may not have all of the desirable elements to develop an effective LNG terminal. Site-specific climatic data and bathymetric survey are essential for the initial terminal planning.
The climatic data, if sourced from previously collected data, are best when confirmed by sitespecific measurements, even if only of limited duration. With the site-specific bathymetric and climatic data, terminal planning can proceed with two focus areas:.
The ship motion analysis is generally carried out using a computer programme for hydrodynamic analysis of floating structures and their mooring systems for the site specific wind, wave and current conditions see Figure 1 illustrating a vessel model using the AQWA suite of programmes.
A ship motion analysis permits the LNG terminal planner to optimise the berth and mooring layout and orientation, as well as to assess the anticipated ship motion due to wind, wave and current for all six degrees of freedom.
This assessment then becomes the tool to determine the expected weather downtime and also to determine the limiting operating climatic conditions for a safe operation. Full bridge navigational simulation is done using a computer-aided real-time simulation facility to ensure that approaches to, and departure from, the proposed terminal would be safe, as well as to develop weather threshold and safety parameters for the terminal operations. The simulation also determines the tug requirements and checks the viability of the mooring system.
There are a number of facilities that can be used for navigational simulation. A properly planned and executed ship motion analysis andn navigational simulation programme generally will lead to an optimised terminal layout, which can be further developed to meet the operational requirements. AIS Portal Advertising. Preferred Partners. Crane Control Systems for Ports and Terminals.
Twitter Facebook LinkedIn Email.This purpose built ports are specially used for export and import of LNG. A variety of facilities for unloading, regasification, tanking, metering etc. At LNG terminals, the liquified natural gas is turned back into gaseous state regasified after unloading from ships and then distributed across the network.
The activity at LNG terminal can be divided into four main stages. Special types of pipes are used to transfer LNG from the ships to the storage tanks on the terminal.
The LNG gas is received at extremely low temperature C while transferring to the tanks. The tanker is moored at the unloading quay and the LNG is offloaded using three arms special pipes located at the quay. The LNG passes through the pipelines that joins the arms to the tanks and is stored inside the tanks at a temperature of C.
Tanking of LNG involves storing at special cryogenic tank designed for extremely low temperature. The double walled insulated tanks are made to store the gas in liquid state by preventing boil-off.
The outer walls of the tanks are made of prestressed reinforced concrete or steel to attain the finest insulation for the LNG. Compressor and recondensing system are used to collect this gas and feed it back to the LNG.
This recycling system prevents any kind of escape of LNG from the system. Reliquefyer is a collector system wherein LNG from the tanks and Boil off from the compressors is collected before is goes for the regasification process.
Recondensor also helps in keeping the boil off gas in the liquid state. Regasification is the process of converting LNG gas from liquid state to gaseous state. Heat exchangers are used to regasify the LNG after it is removed from the tanks and pressurized between bars. Generally sea water is used for the regasification process along with high pressure pumps for transferring LNG.
Regasification process involves raising the temperature of the LNG using seawater. The LNG gas is passed through a heat exchanger using sea water.Royal HaskoningDHV has developed core expertise in engineering the maritime features unique to Liquefied Natural Gas LNG terminals, building on its extensive knowledge of maritime engineering for other types of terminals, including health and safety requirements. LNG terminals often comprise special tanks, ships and even building structures, as well as incorporating port infrastructures and pipelines.
Royal HaskoningDHV has extensive experience of all marine works associated with the design of such purpose-built ports, which are used exclusively to export and import LNG. We have been responsible for assisting in the planning, design or construction supervision of more than 50 LNG terminals since We understand that LNG terminal projects are subject to many unique differences from projects in other sectors.
These include:. Conversion to LNG also helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to fuel oil. LNG is the cleanest non-renewable energy resource, and will likely play a large role in the energy transition.
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